Published in peer-reviewed journal
Our nanocarriers have been successfully evaluated in multiple clinical studies and published in many peer-reviewed journals. Below is a small selection of our scientific achievements.
Improved oral absorption of exenatide using an original nanoencapsulation and microencapsulation approach+-Read More
, 14 Sep 2015
Abstract: Oral delivery is the most convenient and favorable route for chronic administration of peptides and proteins to patients. However, many obstacles are faced when developing such a delivery route. Nanoparticles (NPs) are among the leading innovative solutions for delivery of these drugs. Exenatide is a peptidic drug administered subcutaneously (SC) twice a day chronically as an add-on therapy for the worldwide pandemic disease, diabetes. Many attempts to develop oral nanocarriers for this drug have been unsuccessful due to the inability to retain this hydrophilic macromolecule under sink conditions or to find a suitable cross-linker which does not harm the chemical integrity of the peptide. In this study, we report about an original oral delivery solution based on a mixture of albumin and dextran NPs cross-linked using sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP). Moreover, we suggest a second defense line of gastro-resistant microparticles (MPs) composed of an appropriate ratio of Eudragit® L100-55 (Eudragit L) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), for additional protection to these NPs presumably allowing them to be absorbed in the intestine intact. Our results demonstrate that such a system indeed improves the relative oral bioavailability of exenatide to a level of about 77% compared to subcutaneous injection due to the presence of dextran in the coating wall of the NPs which apparently promotes the lymphatic uptake in the enterocytes. This technology may be a milestone on the way to deliver other peptides and proteins orally.
Pharmacodynamical Effects of Orally Administered Exenatide Nanoparticles Embedded in Gastro-resistant Microparticles+-Read More
, 18 Oct 2018
Abstract: One of the major disadvantages associated with macromolecules therapy is that most of them can only be administered parenterally. Exenatide, an efficient anti-diabetic drug, incretin mimetic, is currently administered subcutaneously (SC) causing compliance issues. Nanoparticles (NPs) are considered a promising solution for oral delivery of this drug. In order to overcome exenatide’s inability to cross the enterocytes and to increase its stability in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, we encapsulated exenatide into a nano-in-micro delivery system. This drug delivery system (DDS) improved the relative oral bioavailability of exenatide, in comparison to Byetta® injection SC. In this study, we report about the efficacy of this DDS to improve glycemic parameters in diabetic ob/ob mice. Our results suggested that our DDS successfully lowered blood glucose levels (BGL) raised insulin levels, decreased glycated hemoglobin and maintained the body weight of the mice. These findings validate the efficacy of this DDS in promoting oral delivery of exenatide and will hopefully improve patient compliance and adherence. The potential of this DDS to encapsulate other leading peptides and proteins, such as insulin, was also evaluated in this study. It was found that peptides up to 6 kDa can be efficiently encapsulated, but the in-vivo performance is also dependent on other physicochemical properties.
Topical nano-encapsulated cyclosporine formulation for atopic dermatitis treatment+-Read More
Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, February 2020
Abstract: Systemic cyclosporine A (CsA) therapy shows efficacy in the treatment of recalcitrant severe atopic dermatitis (AD) but elicits severe side-effects. Thus, a topical formulation of CsA nanocapsules (NCs), able to potentially bypass these drawbacks, was developed. CsA-NCs were shown to enhance drug penetration into the various layers of porcine ear skin. Furthermore, the encapsulated CsA was biologically active, as shown in vitro on mouse splenocytes, reflected by inhibition of both cell proliferation and of interleukin (IL)-2 secretion. Ex-vivo efficacy was demonstrated on human skin organ culture by markedly reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion. Finally, CsA-NCs topical formulation elicited improved efficacy in terms of better preservation of the skin barrier integrity, a decrease of the systemic pro-inflammation markers and reduced skin inflammation. The overall results suggest that this original topical platform may provide a novel therapeutic tool of clinical significance compared to the existing topical therapeutic drugs in AD.
Enhanced cutaneous bioavailability of dehydroepiandrosterone mediated by nano-encapsulation+-Read More
Journal of Controlled Release, 10 September 2014, Pages 65-71
Abstract: Polymeric nanocarriers, especially nanospheres (NSs) and nanocapsules (NCs), can promote the penetration of their cargo through the skin barrier, towards improved cutaneous bioavailability. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), an endogenous hormone exhibiting poor aqueous solubility, was shown to be effective in modulating skin-aging processes following topical application. In this study, we designed adequate DHEA preparations, in an attempt to enable local delivery of the active ingredient to the viable skin layers. In addition, the potential efficiency of DHEA NCs on dermal collagen synthesis was evaluated. Cryo-TEM observations and thermal analysis indicated that DHEA was successfully incorporated within a stable NC-based delivery system. Moreover, higher [3H]-DHEA levels were recorded in the viable skin layers following different incubation periods of NCs on excised pig skin specimens as compared to DHEA oil solution (free molecule). Furthermore, significantly higher (4-fold) skin flux values were observed for the DHEA NCs as compared to the values elicited by the oil control solution. Finally, collagen synthesis in human skin organ culture, assessed by the incorporation of [3H]-proline, was up to 42% higher for DHEA NCs 48 h post-topical application than for the untreated specimens. Overall, these results suggest that poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-based NCs have promising potential to be used topically for various skin disorders.
Cyclosporine A delivery to the eye: A comprehensive review of academic and industrial efforts+-Read More
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, August 2017, Pages 14-28
Abstract: Local ocular delivery of cyclosporine A (CsA) is the preferred method for CsA delivery as a treatment for ocular inflammatory diseases such as uveitis, corneal healing, vernal keratoconjunctivitis and dry eye disease. However, due to the large molecular weight and hydrophobic nature of CsA and the natural protective mechanisms of the eye, achieving therapeutic levels of CsA in ocular tissues can be difficult. This review gives a comprehensive overview of the current products available to clinicians as well as emerging drug delivery solutions that have been developed at both the academic and industry levels.
Successfully Improving Ocular Drug Delivery Using the Cationic Nanoemulsion, Novasorb+-Read More
Journal of Drug Delivery, February 2012
Abstract: Topical ophthalmic delivery of active ingredients can be achieved using cationic nanoemulsions. In the last decade, Novagali Pharma has successfully developed and marketed Novasorb, an advanced pharmaceutical technology for the treatment of ophthalmic diseases. This paper describes the main steps in the development of cationic nanoemulsions from formulation to evaluation in clinical trials. A major challenge of the formulation work was the selection of a cationic agent with an acceptable safety profile that would ensure a sufficient ocular surface retention time. Then, toxicity and pharmacokinetic studies were performed showing that the cationic emulsions were safe and well tolerated. Even in the absence of an active ingredient, cationic emulsions were observed in preclinical studies to have an inherent benefit on the ocular surface. Moreover, clinical trials demonstrated the efficacy and safety of cationic emulsions loaded with cyclosporine A in patients with dry eye disease. Ongoing studies evaluating latanoprost emulsion in patients with ocular surface disease and glaucoma suggest that the beneficial effects on reducing ocular surface damage may also extend to this patient population. The culmination of these efforts has been the marketing of Cationorm, a preservative-free cationic emulsion indicated for the symptomatic treatment of dry eye.
The therapeutic potential of targeting the peripheral endocannabinoid/CB1 receptor system+-Read More
The European Journal of Internal Medicine, , P23-29, MARCH 01, 2018
Abstract: Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are internal lipid mediators recognized by the cannabinoid-1 and -2 receptors (CB1R and CB2R, respectively), which also mediate the different physiological effects of marijuana. The en-docannabinoid system, consisting of eCBs, their receptors, and the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis and degradation, is present in a vast number of peripheral organs. In this review we describe the role of the eCB/CB1R system in modulating the metabolism in several peripheral organs. We assess how eCBs, via activating the CB1R, contribute to obesity and regulate food intake. In addition, we describe their roles in modulating liver and kidney functions, as well as bone remodeling and mass. Special importance is given to emphasizing the efficacy of the recently developed peripherally restricted CB1R antagonists, which were pre-clinically tested in the management of energy homeostasis, and in ameliorating both obesity- and diabetes-induced metabolic com-
A Lipophilic Pt(IV) Oxaliplatin Derivative Enhances Antitumor Activity+-Read More
J. Med. Chem. 2016, 59, 19, 9035–9046, September 7, 2016
Abstract: Side effects and acquired resistance by cancer cells limit the use of platinum anticancer drugs. Modification of oxaliplatin (OXA) into a lipophilic Pt(IV) complex [Pt-(DACH)(OAc)(OPal)(ox)] (1), containing both lipophilic and hydrophilic axial ligands, was applied to improve performance and facilitate incorporation into polymeric nanoparticles. Complex 1 exhibited unique potency against a panel of cancer cells, including cisplatin-resistant tumor cells. [Pt(DACH)(OAc)(OPal)(ox)] incorporated nanoparticles (2) presented a mean diameter of 146 nm with encapsulation yields above 95% as determined by HPLC. Complexes 1 and 2 showed enhanced in vitro cellular Pt accumulation, DNA platination, and antiproliferative effect compared to OXA. Results of an orthotopic intraperitoneal model of metastatic ovarian cancer (SKOV-3) and a xenograft subcutaneous model of colon (HCT-116) tumor in SCID-bg mice showed that the activity of 1 and 2 significantly decreased tumor growth rates compared to control and OXA treatment groups. Consequently, these findings warrant further development toward clinical translation.
Overcoming the formulation obstacles towards targeted chemotherapy: In vitro and in vivo evaluation of cytotoxic drug loaded immunonanoparticles+-Read More
Journal of Controlled Release, 08 Feb 2008, 127(3):219-230
Abstract: The aim of this study was to design a new one step conjugation of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to surface activated pegylated polyester nanoparticles (NPs) and evaluate the pharmacokinetic profile and therapeutic effect of paclitaxel palmitate (pcpl) loaded anti-HER2 immunoNPs in mice as compared to pcpl solution and NPs following IV injection. The density of the antibody conjugated to the NPs was found to be around 35 MAbs/NP (70% coupling efficiency). In vitro cell culture studies showed good binding and uptake results when immunoNPs were incubated with PC-3 and CAPAN-1 cell lines. Both pcpl NPs and immunoNPs showed significant increased t1/2, C(max) and AUC values as compared to the values of pcpl solution in mice. There was no significant difference in the C(max) and AUC values between pcpl NPs and pcpl immunoNPs. However, the immunoNPs concentrated much less in the liver and spleen than NPs. The pharmacokinetic behavior of the immunoNPs was markedly different from the pharmacokinetic profile of the naked MAb showing that the MAb lost its intrinsic molecular pharmacokinetic properties following conjugation to the NPs. The immunoNPs elicited a significant anti-tumor activity as compared to the pcpl solution and NPs, although the tumor growth was not fully inhibited.
The most fruitful basis for the discovery of a new drug
is to start with an old drugSir James W. Black1988 Nobel Prize in Physiology / Medicine